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Carrier - Definition and history


A carrier, is a person or company, which guarantees the transport to a given place of persons, products or goods by means of vehicles, ships, trains, planes or specific equipment. He does this work through a contract of carriage. It uses infrastructures composed of communication channels. Depending on the means used, a distinction is made between land transporters. This is referred to as road and rail transport. The use of waterways is a transport by canals or river. Maritime transport uses the sea, while air or space transport uses the air route. When the carrier uses several means of transport for a contract, he does combined, multi-modal or multi-modal transport. For example, it uses roads, railways and again roads. To tranship goods, or to park their vehicles, the carrier often feels the need to use developed areas such as car parks, airports, ports or stations.
The passenger carrier is an operator called a tour operator, which operates more in the tourism sector. The money transporter is specialized in the movement of valuables. The information carrier, or telecommunication, uses instead radio or optical beams. The transport of mail requires the public service of the Post Office.


The national transport network has only been known since Gallo-Roman times, around 52 BC, thanks to the development of the road network between the main cities, as well as their connection with Rome. It is at the origin of the trade that favoured large cities. Ships were used for long-distance transport. They connected the major Mediterranean ports such as Marseille. In the Middle Ages, people used animals, such as draught horses and oxen, extensively for the transport of goods and people.

Towards the end of the 17th century, transport by canal or river developed rapidly in northeastern France and in the south, the Canal Royal du Languedoc. The French road network followed the course during the 18th century, with the support of the royal power. This is the reason for the existence of large engineering structures, where there were 400 large bridges built, for example.

Currently, with the development of all types of transport means, carriers can transport all classes of goods worldwide. Language barriers and borders are no obstacle to the globalization of trade. They can work in a network with several partners to ensure the speed of their transport. More than ever, the carrier has its raison d'être in community life.

Carrier - What "goods"?

B to B freight transport

Freight exchange

The freight exchange opens up opportunities for collaboration between road freight transport operators and, of course, the carrier. It allows them either to give freight on behalf of third parties or to find goods to transport. This system simplifies research and exchanges between service providers in freight transport

The freight exchange benefits from the use of modern and fast means of communication such as telephone, fax, SMS, Internet. It avoids empty truck returns and significantly reduces driver waiting times. Currently, the latter are practically defeated of this function.

Types of freight transport

The type of transport of goods differs according to the quality of the user of the means of transport. Thus, own-account transport is the transport of your own goods or those of others in your custody, with your own personal means trained by a vehicle and a driver. The carrier can also rent the equipment exclusively. In this case, the transport activity is neither an additional activity nor a temporary accessory, such as product processing, for example. But it is a main activity in its own right.

On the other hand, for-hire transportation, like public transit, is very different from public transit, and requires the carrier to transport goods that do not belong to him by his own means, or by subcontracting. The transport of goods may require the use of specialised services, usually traders. There is the freight forwarder, who is responsible for the implementation of the carriers. He is paid by a commission in proportion to the case handled. The freight forwarder may also subcontract the transport for which he is responsible, up to a maximum of more than 15% of his turnover

For customs clearance operations, or the exit of goods from customs, the carrier will require the service of a freight forwarder, or a broker, transparent intermediary and specialist in the field. The latter shall make its declarations in accordance with the standards, on behalf of the owner of the goods for which it is responsible.

Non-food transport


Goods that require transhipment are transported in 20 or 40 foot containers. This avoids excessively long handling during transshipment. The packaging and packaging of the products are not damaged. The goods are secure because they are stored from store to store. There is no load failure, and it remains the same for the container up to the destination of the goods by the carrier.

There are air-conditioned, refrigerated or refrigerated containers for perishable products. Containerization is also the application of serial production to the transport of goods. It regulates flows, allows the rational organisation of distribution, and guarantees the monitoring of freight rates.


The container can be loaded by the shipper, or by a specialized company. Special precautions should be taken during this operation to avoid damaging the goods and to avoid any possible accident. The first step is to carefully inspect the condition of the container. After the establishment of a logical loading plan, which will take into account the constraints that the container will undergo during transport, each package must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Some may require good stowage, others may require good stowage.

It is also necessary to take into account the nature of the goods, and to solve the problems of incompatibility of form and proximity, and weight. Experts agree that goods that do not change containers are the most secure. On the other hand, those transported in groupage may be damaged during repeated depots and potting, despite the care provided by the carrier.

Container shipping methods

Containers are shipped by a carrier in four main modes: FCL/FCL, LCL/LCL, FCL/LCL/LCL and LCL/FCL. The FCL/FCL mode allows the transport of goods that do not support load breaks. They are then protected from damage due to handling. The goods of a single customer are loaded into the container, sealed and delivered directly to the consignee's warehouses.

In LCL/LCL mode, damage is greater because of the many manipulations suffered by the goods. Their volume is not sufficient to fill a container. They must be sent to groupage centres. They are therefore stuffed with other goods. And it is necessary to wait until the container is completely filled, before the goods are transported to the destination points.

In FCL/LCL mode, the container is loaded with goods belonging to different customers, and of a different nature, but compatible to be put together, in the same container intended for the same destination. Once arrived at destination, the goods will be made available to their respective owners.

In LCL/FCL mode, goods from a single owner come from several origins. More coordination is needed in the collection of goods. The filling time of the container is therefore not controllable, and this mode is not suitable for perishable foodstuffs.

Transport of vehicles (motorcycles, cars, boats...)

The shipment of all types of rolling stock remains possible, with current means of transport, both land and sea. New and used vehicles, sedans, vans, vans, trucks, carriers specializing in their delivery to all world destinations, abound in several countries

The carrier must have a carriage coupling for cars with 5 to 10 seats, for their transport to the destinations you want. The couplers are uncovered and each car is secured according to the rules of the art. The couplers are different depending on the types of cars they carry. There are couplers for light cars, and others for commercial vehicles. The transport of prestigious cars requires special care...

Special provisions must be observed when sending your car to a carrier. For safety reasons, you must remove objects and personal belongings from your car. Only items considered as part of the car can remain. Examples include fixed child seats, wheel replacement tools, jumper cables, small maintenance tools, and the vehicle cover. The owner's manual, scrapers and snow brushes, as well as the first aid kit, are also considered in the same way. However, the presence of dangerous products such as aerosol, engine oil and various maintenance liquids is prohibited. You must remove any other moving items.

Carriers do not accept the transport of broken down vehicles. Your car must be in good working order, with no visible defects or broken parts. There must be no oil or liquid leaks. The battery and parking brakes must operate normally. The tanks for other liquids must be full. The fuel tank must be half full.

You will leave a photocopy of the vehicle registration in the glove box. You also attach the safety features, instructions for starting your vehicle, on the front seat.

Transport of animals

It is possible to transport live animals with conventional means of transport. But it must be done in accordance with the quality standards for the vehicle, with the transportability of the animal, and with the required competence for the driver assigned to this transport. The latter must have the Certificate of Professional Aptitude for the Transport of Live Animals (CAPTAV). CAPTAV is granted to a carrier who fulfils the following three conditions: he must hold a diploma, title or certificate recognised in accordance with the amended order of 17 July 2000; the driver has undergone training at an approved training centre and must have five years' professional experience

However, these provisions do not apply to transport over a distance of less than 65 km. The same applies if it is a transport that the farmer carries out with his own car, for transhumance purposes, and for a single animal. This derogation in no way detracts from the observation of the general principles, in particular the suitability of the means used to transport the animal and its suitability for travel

Car travel for pets must be done with some caution. They should always be installed in the back, regardless of the position of the bench seat. A safety net, or even a separation grid, should be installed between the front and rear of the car to isolate large or turbulent dogs. Safety belts to attach to the harness are provided for dogs and cats. Small animals will be placed in a basket or cage with absorbent paper. Do not forget to stop regularly to allow the animals to drink a little water, as they dehydrate very quickly. Be careful before getting out of the car at a highway paving area. You have to hold their leash before you open the door. Avoid giving them too much to eat in the 12 hours before the trip. Plan medication for those who are motion sickness. Never leave them alone in the car, especially in hot weather. They fear sunstroke.

In principle, apart from service animals, no animals are allowed on SNCF trains, although it charges for the travel of domestic animals. An animal weighing less than 6kg must be placed in a suitable bag or basket. However, its dimensions must not exceed 45 x 30 x 25 cm. Regardless of the destination, you will pay 6 euros. Animals over 6kg will be kept on a leash or even muzzled. You will pay for them the cost of a second class ticket in half fare, even if you are travelling first class. But service animals travel free of charge.

Agri-food transport

The transport of agri-food products requires appropriate technical means, using the so-called controlled temperature. Fresh products must be kept during transport. Some carriers have specialized in the fresh and frozen courier sector. Others have chosen liquid food products. They then have food tanks.

In general, they do not combine refrigerated goods with those that are not. However, some non-perishable goods are compatible with food products, and can therefore be carried together by the carrier, for example, half a word per type

Transport of fragile goods

The transport of musical instruments such as the piano cannot be done with conventional trucks. They must be arranged in such a way as to guarantee the necessary safety during the transfer journey. The walls are covered with foam, and are equipped with lashing systems, which allow the piano to be immobilized, without allowing even partial deformation.

The transport of works of art to exhibition venues, for example, requires the provision of adequate resources. Works must not be damaged during transport. They must travel safely to avoid any slippage along the way. The same applies to the transport of trinkets or works of art transported during the move. Their packaging must be particularly careful. For this type of goods, the carrier's own driving must be adapted to reduce shaking as much as possible.

Passenger transport

Public or individual transport

Public passenger transport is part of the public transport used by official bodies, or by private individuals, to ensure their various journeys. The means of transport used include high capacity vehicles. There are different types of buses, buses, school buses, electric buses, trolleybuses, used for group road transport

Rail transport is also in the circuit, with the use of trains, railcars, railcars, TGVs, sleeper trains, subways, trams, tramways, double-decker trams, funiculars and monorails. The carrier can be national or it can connect neighbouring countries.

Air transport includes not only passenger aircraft, but also chairlifts, cable cars and cable cars. At the maritime level, ferries, bus boats, hovercrafts, fly boats, cruise ships and ocean liners are widely used by many passenger carriers. To park, these means of transport require the installation of reception systems such as stations, air terminals, car parks and parking areas, bus stations, different metro and tramway stations, and different train, bus and metro terminals. These are reserved areas secured by various signs.

The transport of persons with reduced mobility (PRM) is a particular activity. Supporting these people requires the implementation of means adapted to each type of people's mobility. The vehicles are specially equipped to accommodate wheelchairs. Accompanying drivers shall receive special training before providing the service.

Patient transport

Patient transport is included in medical transport. Their difference lies in the condition of the person to be transported. Medical transport is the act of bringing a sick or injured person, a patient or a victim, by a suitable and assisted means of transport. The exercise of the activity of medical transporter is regulated, and is done according to a medical prescription with the ambulance, the SMUR, the Professionalized Seated Transport...

Medical transport by ambulance, or a fast rescue vehicle, like those of the French fire brigade, is carried out on the road. When access to the accident or illness site is difficult, the helicopter can be used. If the distance to be covered is very long, air medical evacuation or repatriation shall be by air.

Types of sanitary transport

The health carrier is of two types. Primary transport refers to the transport of the victim or patient from the scene of an accident or illness to a health centre. These places can be the home, the public highway, or the establishment that welcomes the public. In these cases, we also speak of medical evacuation. Secondary transport refers to the transfer of a patient from one care centre to another.

Taxi drivers, holders of a first aid certificate, are authorised to carry patients seated on medical prescription. They are agreed by social organisations, in the same way as VSLs. The vehicles admitted to the transport of patients are defined by the decree of 10 February 2009. They must comply with standard NF EN 1789 of December 1999. These are then "specially equipped vehicles (SUVs)". Category A includes emergency rescue and care ambulance (ASSU). It becomes a mobile hospital unit (UMH), if attached to a SMUR. Category B includes the victim assistance and rescue vehicle (VSAV). These are the fire engines. Category C is the ambulance. Category D concerns the light sanitary vehicle (SLV). The vehicle category symbol must be affixed to the bodywork...

Reimbursement of transported patients

The patient transported is entitled to reimbursement for transport, in the case of hospitalisation, transport distances exceeding 150 km, accidents at work or occupational diseases. In mass transport for the same treatment, and where there are at least 4 trips of more than 50 km over two months, the patient is also reimbursed for the transport, provided that he has the prior agreement of the treatment organisation. Finally, if the patient has to undergo treatment for a long-term illness, and is 100% cared for, he can be reimbursed.

In all cases, the presentation of the carte vitale certificate and the transport voucher signed by the attending doctor is required. The transport assistance service of certain mutuals may cover the partial reimbursement of the cost of transporting patients by ambulance, taxi or various medical vehicles. For medical transports, the carrier is often paid directly by the social security body and by the complementary, if the patient has one

Carrier - Vehicles and equipment

Means of transport

The classification of road vehicles seems difficult, due to the diversity of vehicles used for road transport. In general, a distinction can be made between vehicles intended for the transport of persons, those used for the transport of goods and vehicles used for agricultural and forestry services. But we can make an approach according to the number of wheels, the power of the engine, depending on the structure (self-supporting or articulated vehicle), and according to the energy source. It should be noted that express transport of small packages most often uses two-wheelers.

Large carriers use fleets of trucks to transport freight. To reduce the number of trips, and to deliver all of a customer's goods on time, the use of semi-trailers is common. Sometimes they work in partnership with another carrier, or they have a transport chain. In these cases, they have a platform, and they use containers for long-distance routes, requiring passage in different countries, for international trade

Some food products, or not, can be taken by tanker truck. But refrigerated trucks or semi-trailers, or refrigerated carriers, are used for temperature-sensitive products. Currently, the installation of a GPS on each vehicle allows faster and less stressful driving.

For a carrier, the amount of investment represented by a transport vehicle is very high. To finance this investment, carriers must provide proof of a balance sheet showing positive net assets in proportion to the number of vehicles operated. To finance its investment in vehicles, the carrier generally uses its own funds, the use of bank loans, long-term leasing or leasing

Equipment (Harnesses, boxes...)

Various stowage, fixing and handling equipment can be fitted to transport vehicles. The harness, for example, is an accessory that allows a person to attach themselves. It is an individual protective equipment. It is also a strap system that connects an animal to a cart. The leash and harness allow you to travel safely with your dog.

Cartons are valuable packaging for transported objects. There are isothermal packaging, made of polyurethane panels without CFCs or high-density HCFCs, for shipping products that must be at a constant temperature, especially cold. There are also packaging packs, for shipments in crates. Moving kits and boxes, wardrobe boxes, foam or bubble wrap, corrugated cardboard, adhesive tapes, are all small equipment used in the transport of goods

Handling equipment such as pallet trucks, hand trucks, trolleys and freight elevators, serve freight carriers and movers a lot. In addition to this list are the different lashing ropes for packages and furniture, for example. To be efficient, the modern carrier needs increasingly specialized equipment.

Investments and financing

For a carrier, the amount of investment represented by a transport vehicle is generally very high. To be eligible to operate, carriers must have a balance sheet showing positive net assets in proportion to the number of vehicles operated. They must justify each year that this regulatory condition is fully respected. This "certificate of financial capacity" must be certified by a chartered accountant.

To finance its investments in vehicles, the carrier uses its own funds, the use of bank loans, long-term leasing or leasing. For leasing financing, the first monthly payment is often increased and paid by the trade-in value of the replaced vehicle. From an accounting point of view, this overpayment should not be charged in its entirety to the expenses of the current financial year. The deduction of the portion exceeding the normal rent must be recorded as "deferred charges", so that its deduction can be spread over subsequent years. The same applies if there is an overpayment during the first monthly payment of a long-term rental.

Carrier - Regulations

Freight transport

Freight transport is an economic operation governed by national and international rules. It must not be done without a contract. A contract for the transport of goods is a commercial contract. Depending on the mode of transport used, this document is named differently. Thus, road freight transport will legally require a consignment note. It's the old delivery receipt, or the delivery note. In the maritime transport of various parcels, we will speak rather of a sea bill of lading. The air transport of articles includes a document called an air waybill (LTA).

The substances carried must be clearly indicated on the contract of carriage. In general, it is necessary to define the category of each commodity, its weight, and its volume. The places of its embarkation or loading, and its disembarkation or unloading, must also be postponed. The name of the carrier and its possible commissioning partner will be duly indicated on the contract. It is also important to mark the safety characteristics, relating to the goods transported, such as the danger they could pose, for example flammable products. The contract may include specific statements, such as amounts to be recovered and special instructions on deliveries

The document required by the specificity of the product being transported comes first. For example, the text on the product of animal origin requires that the framework for its production, sale and control by the animal health police, in particular in the case of intra-Community trade, be transferred to the document

For own-account transport, the information must be entered on the document accompanying the products, in accordance with the Order of 19 May 1987. They concern transport carried out with a vehicle with a GVWR of 7.5 tonnes or more. For transport not stipulated by this decree, and for other cases, such as itinerant sales or itinerant shops, the information will be entered on the commercial documents. These include, for example, delivery notes, or invoices.

Road transport

In France, being a road transport operator means that the carrier has a certificate of capacity as a road transport operator and as a lessor of industrial vehicles. Otherwise, he must have an equivalent diploma as soon as the vehicle used for the operation has a GVW of 3.5 tonnes. It must be registered in the register of carriers and lessors of industrial vehicles, which is controlled by the Regional Equipment Directorate (DRE). The latter issues him an operating permit comprising two licences, valid for five years and renewable. These licences are challenged annually, and the carrier is required to prove that it has adequate financial capacity

On the one hand, the transport licence for vehicles with a payload of less than 3.5 tonnes is of an original orange colour. The certified copies, unique per vehicle, are brown, while the Community licence for vehicles with a payload of more than 3.5 tonnes is original blue, and the certified copies per vehicle are green

For transport outside the European Union, except Switzerland for French, the carrier must have authorisations corresponding to the agreements concluded between France and the transit countries. These are the ECMT licence for all transport, and the bilateral licence to cross the country. To move to other countries that are not signatories to the agreements, you must see the corresponding embassies.

In the context of road freight transport, transport documents must guarantee the traceability of the products transported. They must be presented to the competent authorities, at their request, (police, gendarme, veterinary officers). In addition, the information necessary for their transport in the best conditions of hygiene and safety must be mentioned.

The transportation of food is in the freight transportation group. It is subject, as the case may be, to the regulations on public transport or on own-account transport. The decree of 20 July 1998 specifies the necessary documents that must accompany the goods and the drivers of the vehicles that carry them

In addition, for public road transport of food, certain mandatory information must appear on the consignment note for the transport of more than 3 tonnes of cargo over a minimum distance of 150 km. On the consignment note for courier services (receipt), this information is mandatory for any consignment of less than 3 tonnes, regardless of distance, and for any consignment of more than 3 tonnes within a radius of less than 150 km

Agri-food transport

Application of transport regulations

The scope of the regulations that the carrier must comply with for the transport of human food is vast. But the constraints vary according to the condition and nature of the products, and according to the vehicles used for their transport. The products affected by the regulations are foodstuffs, beverages, perishable or not, packaged or not, of animal origin or not, processed or not. Natural mineral waters, waters for human consumption, raw products from crops (potatoes, cereals, fresh fruit and vegetables, etc.) are excluded from the scope of the regulation when transported at the primary stage. This means, transport from the harvesting or exploitation area to the unloading or storage area, or to a market gardener. On the other hand, transport from the latter to the point of sale, and subject to the regulations.

The decree of 20 July 1998 divides food into three categories, each of which includes a non-exhaustive list of products. Category 1 includes products at the primary stage of production (bran, raw sugar, beet, must, etc.). Category 2 concerns products stable at ambient temperature, in bulk or in packaging (wines, alcohols, vegetable oils, milks and derivatives, etc.). Category 3 includes products that are unstable and fragile at ambient temperature, and which require transport under controlled temperature (eggs, fish, crustaceans, animal waste, etc.)

Professional vehicles, automobile sales outlets such as store trucks, store cars, rail cars, tankers, containers, and any container by land, are affected by the regulations. The same is true for professions related to food such as butchers, grocers, caterers, and who use their own cars to buy supplies.

Before transporting food, the carrier must ensure that the following information is complete. Is the indication of the food to be transported accurate and complete? Can the nature of the goods be easily identified, without completely addressing them? Is the indication of the required transport temperature and the physical condition of frozen, frozen or refrigerated products clear? Are the temperatures recommended by the manufacturers verifiable, even if they are not marked on the labels? Are their embarkation and disembarkation points recorded on the documents?

In addition, in a standard "temperature-controlled transport" contract, the shipper must provide information on the type and class of the recommended transport vehicle, the temperature of the load at departure, and the ambient temperature inside the vehicle, at the latest, at the time of signing the contract of carriage. In the event that the products are returned to their place of dispatch, due to their condition, the reason for transport and the destination of the goods must be indicated on the accompanying documents given to the carrier

Some food transported in bulk in tanks, not for consumption, is transported to non-food processing companies. There is, for example, the starch used in the paper industry. The carrier will not fulfil the formalities required for foodstuffs. It will mark the destination of the product on the accompanying document.

In addition, the control officers require from the carriers either the original or the certified copy of the health and technical conformity certificates or the transport health certificate. These documents may be replaced by the presence of the ATP Certificate of Conformity plate on the container or on the vehicle from other states. The same applies to small containers between 0.5 and 2 m3, equipped with the ATP plate


During the winter, by derogation of the prefecture, vehicles with a GVW of more than 3.5 tonnes, and carrying perishable foodstuffs, may be equipped with studded tyres. These tyres must be fitted at least on the wheels of a driven axle, and on the wheels of the steered axle. Only the inner wheels of the twin wheels will be equipped with studs. The maximum diameter of the flanges is 8 mm. The minimum diameter of the upper flange must be at least 7.5mm. The distance between the axes of two flanges must be at least 4 mm. The number of studs per tyre must be between 100 and 300. The central third of the tread must not be worn. A spike must have a maximum weight of 4.5 g. In new condition, it must have an outside height between 2 and 2.5 mm.

Transport vehicles weighing more than 3.5 tonnes of GVW thus equipped must not exceed a speed of 60 km/h. They must have on the rear part, on a clearly visible part, a disc 15 cm in diameter where there will be this speed limit. The wearing of studded tires is permitted from the Saturday before November 11 to the last Sunday in March of the following year. Depending on weather conditions, these dates may be modified by the prefects. It should be noted that during thaw periods, the carrier is frequently temporarily prohibited from a number of routes

Highway Code

In the event of infringements of the Highway Code, or of the regulations governing transport by a carrier, the penalties provided for in the Decree of 20 July 1998 shall apply to any natural or legal person responsible for transporting food on his own account or on behalf of a third party. The criminal liability of the principal may also be incurred.

The contravention applied for the offence of the order of July 20, 1998, is of the 5th class. The absence of the mention "reserved for foodstuffs" on tanks intended for such foodstuffs leads to a 3rd class contravention. The fine may reach a certain amount, in accordance with Article 20 of Decree No 91 - 409 of 26 April 1991 as amended


Operating mode

To speed up the transport of various goods, and in complete safety, carriers have specialized in the express transport of parcels, confidential files, urgent letters, original plans, fresh and frozen products... They use traditional means of transport such as truck, boat, rail and air...

They work in partnership with transport companies, and they have reservations for priority freight. Their objective is to respect constraints and deadlines. They are insured against all risks on the declared values, with national and international coverage, to guarantee the services they offer to their clients. They have adequate resources and are in permanent working order, which can respond quickly to the most urgent needs. For example, they set up double crews or relays for very long distances. The delivery system of this carrier is of three types: delivery with "waiting on site and return", delivery against refund and delivery on "appointment". They also accept, under certain conditions, hand-delivery.

Messaging regulation

The definition of the messaging driver is provided by Decree No. 2002-622 of 25 April 2002). This official text states that courier drivers are mobile staff assigned, on a main basis, to organised courier services, the collection and delivery of goods or products as part of regular rounds requiring, for the same shipment from home, "grouping (collection) and ungrouping transports" operations, and involving specific delivery time constraints. In courier services, the carrier transports goods from several shippers or to several consignees, and must pass through a place where the goods are stored, which causes a "load failure" that slows down his work and greatly reduces his average hourly mileage. The conventional carrier, on the other hand, works at "constant load".

Exceptional transport

The transport of cash or valuables, of particular goods such as works of art, is particularly delicate for the carrier. Cash transfers to banks are handled by cash couriers. Their bodywork and tyres are specially designed against bullet attacks and various obstacles. The parts where they will deliver the funds are marked out and closely monitored.

The transport of bulky objects such as factory items, the on-site delivery of construction equipment, miscellaneous machinery, tanks and boats on trailers, or large agricultural equipment, the transport to a location, special vehicles of non-standard dimensions, are part of exceptional transport. They require fitted trays with suitable mooring devices. The transport driver must have the corresponding administrative documents, as well as authorisations to travel at specific times. Transport equipment is often escorted by conveyors.

Decree No. 91-223 of 22 February 1991, grants a national derogation on driving bans to vehicles used as shops for local markets. The same applies to vehicles specially equipped for door-to-door sales operations. Finally, a permanent derogation is granted during harvesting to vehicles used for the collection and transport of agricultural products from the place of harvesting to the place of packaging, processing, transformation or storage of the products

In general, transport vehicles with a GVWR greater than 7.5 tonnes, except for foodstuffs and perishable products defined by the Decree of 14 August 1997, may not be used during the year on Saturdays and on the eve of public holidays, from 22.00 to 22.00 on Sundays or at the end of public holidays. The list of products that may benefit from the derogations during weekends and public holidays should be consulted with the competent authorities

Public or private own-account food transport vehicles with a PTAC or PTRA of more than 3.5 tonnes must be equipped with a tachograph stopwatch. Their drivers are subject to the observation of driving or rest periods, in accordance with European regulations EEC n° 3820/85 and 3821/85 of 20 December 1995. However, derogations are granted to vehicles used to collect milk on farms. They are considered in the same way, when they bring back to the farms, milk cans, or possibly dairy products used for animal feed. For a carrier, the regulation of exceptional transport is very restrictive, so that road safety is never called into question

Container standards

For the carrier, the use of containers follows a strict rule, first in its design and then in its use. The container must meet international ISO standards in terms of dimensions and strength. There are two main dimensions of containers: 20 feet and 40 feet.

Express transport of small packages

In France, the conformity of the container is approved by the Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR). It must withstand the constraints of road, rail and sea transport. It is classified according to its use.

The carrier operating as a courier will be subject to the UFT (Union of Transport Federations). The texts regulating the exercise of the profession of light transport operator, initially planned for 4-wheelers, now apply to urban 2-wheel couriers. The National Collective Agreement on Road Transport of 21 December 1950 (amended in 2004) regulates relations between employers and employees of road transport companies. An amendment "urban couriers" is provided for express parcels in particular.

Transport of animals

Various animals

The transport of live vertebrate animals, mammals, birds, fish... in the context of an economic activity, on its own account or on behalf of a third party, must comply with European regulation EC1/2005 applied on 5 January 2008. The carrier must hold an authorization consisting of 3 points. The driver must be familiar with the transport of animals. The possession of the Certificate of Professional Aptitude for the Transport of Live Animals (CAPTAV), is required since January 1, 2002. The means of transport used must be approved for the transport of animals. A certificate of conformity and issued for this purpose. And the carrier's commitment to an operation is required...

The vehicle's certificate of conformity is granted for a transport distance of less than 65 km, under the following conditions. The vehicle must be easy to clean and disinfect. It must have minimum openings for ventilation. The body and floor must be in good condition, and must not have any holes. The bodywork waterproofness certificate must be valid. The floor will be equipped with litter or anti-slip. No element on board must injure the animals. If the duration of the intra-EU transport is less than 8 hours, or less than 12 hours in France, a Type I authorisation is issued, with the conditions of transport less than 65km. But the vehicle roof must be solid, and it must have an unloading deck with transverse slats.

A Type II authorization is required for long-term transport. The following conditions are necessary, and none should be neglected. The vehicle roof must be hard and insulated. The floor must have a non-slip surface. On board, it was a loading and unloading equipment with transverse slats. The animals will be isolated with separation bars. A dynamic ventilation system, a temperature alert and recording system, as well as a watering system, must be installed in the car. On new vehicles, the presence of a GPS is mandatory.

The carrier's commitment for an operation allows the company's legal director to certify that he has seen and accepts all the points required for the transport of animals from his farm. The transport authorisation is issued by the DSV, when all the conditions are met, for a period of five years. It must be presented to the supervisory authorities, at their request...


The laws of July 30, 1987 and January 27, 1993 of the French legislation, allows the access of guide dogs to public places such as public transport (buses, metro...). But the status of assistance dogs is not well defined. However, a land carrier accepts their access on board under certain safety conditions. Some frightened animals require sedation. With a little smile, you can convince a taxi driver to admit your pet's access on board. But he has the right to refuse it.

With air transport as in maritime transport, it is necessary to check with the company, if pets are allowed. At the time of booking, you must specify your intention to bring an animal, as well as its breed and species. However, cats and some breeds of dogs are accepted on board. Birds are less accepted. Otherwise, they must remain in a cage. The animal in a cage and weighing less than 6 kg, can sometimes travel in a cabin. For a weight greater than 6 kg, travel in a ventilated and pressurized hold is mandatory.

In any case, you must be able to provide the carrier with all the documents that must accompany your pets. They are necessary, especially if you are travelling abroad. You will need the vaccination or health record, the European passport, and the certificate of fitness for your service animal. You must prove that your dog is approved. Come one hour before the check-in deadline to complete the formalities for your pet.

Enforcement of regulations

Regulations for the transport of live animals differ according to their mode of transport. Within the European Union, animals are not subject to customs clearance. On the other hand, when travelling by air, they are not only checked by customs, but must also undergo veterinary checks. They must have up-to-date health certificates. The regulations on animals Genetically Modified Organisms are followed by customs. You must have the approval of your laboratory and that of the Commission for Genetic Engineering.

The European Union completely revised the rules on animal welfare during transport in December 2004. Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 specifies the measures to be taken in this case. It has also introduced a system called TRACES to monitor the import or movement of live animals. Switzerland shall not allow a transporter to allow live animals intended for slaughter to pass through its territory

Passenger transport

Road passenger transport is among the commercial activities that use road vehicles, such as buses and coaches. It is also called public transit. Transmission lines can be regular. In these cases, their implementation in a private or public capacity is the responsibility of territorial authorities, such as departments or administrative regions. School pick-up transport is a natural part of passenger transport.

The organisation of passenger transport by a company, both urban and interurban, is governed by the 1982 law, the LOTI (law on the orientation of inland transport). This activity is included among land transport, in the same way as the transport by rail of goods or miscellaneous goods. It is a regulated activity in several countries. With regard to the transport of passengers, the regulations imposed on the carrier are very strict.

Transporter - Ecology

Environmental impact

According to the French Agency for Environmental Health Security (AFSSE), air pollution by fine particles is responsible for the annual deaths of nearly 9,500 people in France. According to 1999 IEA data, road transport is responsible for 18% of CO2 emissions. The environmental impacts of road transport are grouped into direct and indirect impacts. Lead in gasoline, particle emissions from exhaust systems, engine noise are all negative factors for humans and their environment. The impacts have effects that are postponed in the more or less long term. The lungs suck in stale air and create lung and cardiovascular problems. The climate no longer follows its natural course. Micro-nuisances are formed that permanently damage flora and fauna. Air pollution created by exhaust gases is the cause of respiratory diseases and excessive global warming. Every carrier is well aware of these problems, but are consumers willing to pay the price of cleaner transport?

Cold start would be a major source of pollution. Rapid restarts at stops and various traffic lights would triple CO2 emissions. It seems that driving with an older generation car for as long as possible would emit less carbon dioxide than making new cars.

The transport sector emits nitrogen oxides, NOx, which are at the origin of "pollution peaks", directly dangerous for humans. The automobile in the transport sector is an energy consumer. The reduction in the number of individual means of transport is a major factor in achieving these objectives. In addition to air transport, which remains the most polluting mode of transport, in terms of the number of passengers, other public transport meets these expectations well, provided that it has enough passengers. Otherwise, commuting during home-work trips, which is responsible for the camel phenomenon, affects public transport activity during the week

The solutions

In the field of transport, environmental protection is achieved by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere and reducing energy consumption. The acquisition of energy-efficient and clean road transport vehicles should be encouraged. The means made available to the carrier must be eco-responsible means of transport. The use of renewable energies and the reduction of greenhouse gases on transport vehicles are objectives to be achieved in 2020, within the European Community

Lead, which is responsible for lead poisoning, is increasingly banned in gasoline, but not in general. Actions in this direction must be increased in the batteries and wheel balancing weights. Monitoring the maintenance of the carrier's truck engine can affect the reduction of toxic gas emissions. The use of particulate filters on exhaust systems should be generalised, in addition to the catalytic converter. Vehicles must be thoroughly and regularly cleaned, tires must be replaced at the limit of wear, air filters, windshield wiper blades, brake pads, etc.

The European Union has also adopted a strategy to reduce air emissions from ships. It has also set up means of combating marine pollution, in the form of severe sanctions against those responsible. Finally, it is reported to have adopted rules on noise management at Community airports through the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). The noisiest aircraft would not be allowed at European airports.

Carrier - Advice, tariffs and organizations


The choice of a mode of transport is important in projects involving the transport of goods or general cargo. This choice depends in the first place on the nature of the products to be transported. The other factors involved are the weight and volume of the goods. There are very convenient and fast volume calculation methods that allow you to estimate the volume of your goods. The quote corresponding for transport will depend on the weight and volume to be transported.

The job of carrier requires certain obligations to be followed. You would like to become a carrier, here are some of them advice that will give you ideas. The creation of a passenger transport company must follow the various technical and administrative steps and the corresponding administrative formalities. You must define your company's speciality and the scope of your activities. Is it a road haulage company, a taxi company, a private transport company, an airport shuttle company?

In all cases, you must have a certificate of professional competence. You must justify your non-conviction for offences of fraud, theft, breach of trust... You must therefore present your bulletin n°2 (criminal record). You must have sufficient financial resources to ensure that your company has equity capital with guarantees of 900 euros per vehicle. You then proceed to register your company in the carrier register. Before completing your registration with the Registry of the Commercial Court and making a legal announcement in a specialised newspaper, you must declare your activity using the K-bis form to the Centre de Formalités des Entreprises


International road transport tariffs are defined by freedom of pricing. These transport rates are assessed either by the weight of the goods or by their volume. However, care must be taken to use lighter, not too bulky and pallet-compliant packaging. Rates may therefore vary from one carrier to another, due to fierce competition.

Some carriers offer you cheaper rates for grouped shipments. Carriers transport your goods with other products. This saves them time and fuel and prevents them from coming back empty. You will be able to benefit from exceptional rates. The transport tariff is proposed to you by the freight forwarders. This rate generally depends on the destination of the goods. In these groupage shipments, the type of goods is often not considered but rather their weight and volume. It should be noted that 1 tonne is equivalent to about 3 m3.

Organizations (official and trade union)

The carrier's activity is recorded in the "register of carriers and commercial vehicle rental companies" which the Regional Equipment Directorate (DRE) controls. The Equipment Directorates are the local representations of several ministries. It is the Departmental Equipment Directorates (DDE), which are responsible for allocating the capacity certificate to the profession of transport operator, required for the use of vehicles with a total authorised weight (PTAC) in load exceeding 3.5 tonnes. This certificate of professional competence for the occupation of transport operator is issued as part of an examination comprising written and oral tests. An intensive training of several months is required to have a chance to get this difficult exam. These bodies control the documents relating to the "certificate of financial standing" that each carrier must produce.

Various bodies have been set up to defend the interests of road hauliers, drivers or user sponsors. These are the Association des utilisateurs de transport de fret (AUTF), the French Federation of Movers (FFD), the National Federation of Road Drivers (FNCR), the National Federation of Road Transport (FNTR), the Federation of French Transport and Logistics Companies (TLF). Other organisations defend the interests of SMEs, such as the European Road Hauliers' Organisation (OTRE). There is also the National Union of Motor Carriers' Trade Unions (UNOSTRA).

For air transport, there is the union of autonomous airlines. There is also the National Federation of Merchant Aviation (FNAM), and the National Union of Helicopter Operators. At the international level, there is the International Air Carriers Association (IATA), the Association of Franc Area Air Carriers (ATAF), the European Air Transport Association (EAE), and many others. In the maritime sector, there is the Federation of Christian Trade Unions of Road Transport and Similar Personnel (CFTC), the National Federation of Ports and Docks and Similar (Rail Handling and Related Works Section) (CGT-FO). The carrier, whether employed or self-employed, is therefore not isolated

Carrier - Advantages and disadvantages



You will be able to benefit from many benefits thanks to a carrier. You will be entitled to quality service. Your goods will be delivered to your home on time and safely. Home delivery is called door-to-door delivery. There is a well-defined coordination of all the carrier's activities, even if it works in partnership with other carriers. Thus, their routes are controlled.

Handlers do the loading and unloading work. Your goods will be safe because there are accompanying documents. You will earn attractive rates for group shipments. When you move, you can be sure to complete the transfer of your belongings on time and in better conditions than when you would have done so. For a company, entrusting all its freight transport to a carrier is more profitable than managing it internally. Indeed, a transport company is specialized and will allow you to take full advantage of the volume effect and productivity gains associated with its advanced logistics. In addition, only a professional carrier can carry out courier services.

Fretbay Advantages

Fretbay offers you outstanding services, combining the advantages of other companies. In addition, this carrier welcomes you warmly and answers all your questions. As a professional, he offers you excellent services. He closely monitors the safety of your goods, which are naturally very well insured, but also perfectly respects delivery times.

Fretbay cares about the quality of its services and keeps its commitments. Offering you a competitive rate, this carrier never ceases to satisfy you for the transportation of your goods. Speed of service, absolute security, respect for your rights and your goods, your parcels, total guarantee of your precious belongings, these are the bets made by this freight professional


For the use of a road freight carrier, there are no major disadvantages. The price may seem higher, but it is only an appearance. Indeed, if companies that manage their own freight transport fleets were to make a detailed calculation of the costs they have to bear, they would be very surprised. A company that is not specialised in freight transport logistics cannot optimise the management of its heavy goods vehicle fleet, particularly since it can only carry out "constant load transport"

Most of the disadvantages are in the field of public passenger transport. If there are fewer accidents with public transport, there are more assaults of all kinds. The adoption of public transit requires a minimum of tolerance, on certain behaviours, on the sharing of the available space, much smaller than on a personal car. Very few lines are equipped to accommodate people with reduced mobility. The accesses are made up of stairs and do not include elevators. They are also inaccessible to the blind.

Public passenger transport often lacks comfort, even if great efforts are made to improve it. Waiting points are often unhealthy and unheated in winter, except in large stations. There is no question of carrying your luggage, at the risk of losing it. Service interruptions are frequent due to lack of maintenance. Continuous strikes are enough to completely paralyse the service. And solutions to failures are not often solved. Finally, schedules and connections are sometimes restrictive for public transit users. But that doesn't mean that life doesn't go on!

For someone who is looking for a carrier, a carrier quote, a carrier search, a carrier rate, carrier rates, animal transport, animal transport, animal transport, car transport, car transport, horse transport, furniture transport, motorcycle transport or object transport, it is here. If you are looking for a scooter transport, a vehicle transport, a car transport, an Alsace transport company, a car transport company, a motor transport company, a Bordeaux transport company, a Brittany transport company, a horse transport company, a Corsican transport company, a France transport company, a Lille transport company or a Lyon transport company, it is there. If you want a Marseille carrier, a furniture carrier, a mobile home carrier, a Montpellier carrier, a motorcycle carrier, a Nantes carrier, a Nice carrier, a Paris carrier, a cheap carrier, a Rennes carrier, a scooter carrier, a Toulouse carrier, a car carrier or carriers, you are in the right place. It's time to enjoy it.

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